PHP mail() function and GMail
or Another reason to avoid PHP's mail() function
Since launching Giefan.com on Monday we've fixed a few bugs that only came to light as a result of the way other people work. One such was an email problem with messages sent to GMail (thanks to Alan for catching this). I've never had a GMail account so it wasn't one of the email applications we tested the messages with.
Email messages were arriving at GMail with messages garbled into a string of apparently random characters and with the sender listed as unknown. I was using mb_send_mail() to send UTF-8 email messages from PHP. I always intended to implement a different email solution at some point but evaluating the various possibilities and making a choice didn't seem as important for the launch period as many of the other features so I chose to start with mb_send_mail() and switch to another solution later.
mb_send_mail() was sending messages as UTF-8 and base64 encoded, and it seems that GMail failed to correctly understand this from the email headers. As a result, GMail simply displayed the base64 encoded data. The quick fix just to get it working was to switch to PHP's mail() function. This would suffice for a few hours while we sought a better solution.
The other problem was GMail displaying the sender as unknown, despite having the sender data in the From: header. I tried various different formats for the From: header (quotes around the name, extra spaces etc.) but none seemed to work for GMail. Instead, it always displayed the From: header line in the body of the message (there were no blank lines in the header so that's not the problem, and the messages worked with a number of other email applications we tested them with).
I still haven't discovered what the problem was but have three possibilities.
- Does GMail dislike the unconventional (but not technically wrong) ordering of the headers that mail() and mb_send_mail() produce?
- Does GMail distrust messages in which the X-Mailer header lists "PHP mailer" as the system used and consequently displays the sender as unknown and places the from data in the message?
- Is mail() doing something wrong in its headers, and most email applications are simply ignoring the mistake and figuring out what's intended?
If anyone knows the actual cause please add a comment below.
Anyway, the obvious solution was to avoid PHP's mail functions altogether so I hurriedly added Chris Corbyn's Swift Mailer script and altered my code to use it, and all was well. I haven't thoroughly tested Swift Mailer yet but it seems to be working fine - the messages are in UTF-8 and GMail is happy with them.
Swift Mailer is just one of many alternatives to the mail() function but I like it for it's simplicity of use. Hopefully, when I test it out more thoroughly later this month I'll still be very happy with it.
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